Assessment Report on Health Status of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) of Odisha, India
Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Research and Training Institute (SCSTRTI), Bhubaneswar, 751003
This study was carried out in 17 Micro-project areas of PVTGs in Odisha. Both quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used for this assessment. All the households of the 17 micro-project areas of Odisha state constitute the universe and household was the study element for quantitative purposes. A two-stage stratified clustered random sampling strategy was adopted to select the households. "Health status" of all the individuals of sampled household was assessed. The household demographic, education, socioeconomic status, location, sanitation, housing condition, health seeking behavior, and information on mortality during last twelve months were collected. Anthropometric assessment- height, weight, mid upper arm circumference and waist circumference as well as nutritional practices including food security of all the individuals were assessed. In order to estimate the prevalence of diseases affecting the individuals - information of physician diagnosed diseases that commonly affects such communities like malaria, skin infection, diarrhea, tuberculosis, leprosy, chronic lung diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and paralysis were collected. Individuals who did not have a physician-diagnosed condition, questions regarding relevant symptoms were asked. Information on bitot spots was observed during the interview. The information of tobacco and alcohol consumption habit, social structure and health seeking behavior, social well being using WHO well-being assessment tool (1998) were assessed and blood pressure was measured for all above the age of 14 years. The study undertook hemoglobin estimation for women in reproductive age (15-49 years) group using haemocue method. The additional information on menstruation management, sexual transmitted diseases (STD) and reproductive tract infection (RTI), and history of marital life and childbirth were collected for reproductive age women. The WHO-UNICEF Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) format was used to assess the health status of under-five children. For older people the data on timed walk grip strength, verbal recall and activities of daily living (ADL) were collected. The results were presented in the form of contingency tables that depicted the numbers along with the percentages of the population and data pie charts. The data were analyzed using R software (3.0.1). Total thirteen Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among the PVTGs (one at each PVTG) community members and twenty-six. In-depth Interviews (IDIs) among traditional and modern healthcare practitioners, service providers and program managers (two from each PVTG) were conducted for more in-depth information on their health-seeking behaviours and nutritional practices.