Mapping Exercise of All Major Tribal Migrant Pockets of Odisha (Source and Destination) And Issues of Tribal Migrants: A Situation Analysis, Gap Assessment and Future Directions on Livelihood Migration of Tribals from Odisha
Anup Kumar Mohapatra
Migration Livelihood Strategies Vulnerabilities Source And Destination Areas Resettlement Action Plan Minimum Wage Skill Development
Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Research and Training Institute (SCSTRTI), Bhubaneswar, 751003
Migration has taken a pivotal place in the present development discourse. Sometimes migration is voluntary, but many times people are forced to migrate because they do not have any other choices. Seasonal and circular migration of labour for employment has become one of the most durable components of livelihood strategies of people living in rural areas. Scheduled Tribe constitute almost 9% of India's Population and 24% of Odisha's population and still continue to remain one of the most challenging sectors of population in terms of economic growth and development. Development has failed to reach the tribal in an adequate and sustainable way which is resulting in increasing migration of tribal to developed areas of India in search of opportunities and livelihoods.
This study recognizes the extent and dimensions of tribal migration in the State and emphasizes the need for policy change to ensure safe migration, promote enabling environment for tribals to remain in their own environment with peace, dignity and financial stability. This study was conducted in 11 Sources Districts of Odisha, 7 Destination areas in 6 districts of Odisha and 2 Destination States The study highlights the story of Tribal Migration from Odisha, determines various reasons that force tribals to migrate and their plight in places where they land up for the economic succor.The study has identified the major issues of Tribal Migrants, the number of vulnerabilities they face related to their identity, livelihood, lifestyle, health, education, limited access to financial services,rampant exploitation, finance and legal protection etc. This is in addition to all hardship they face in terms of finding appropriate/adequate place to live, hardship to work in time bound overloaded work, lack of opportunity to avail basic amenities both at workplace and at the place of stay.
As a way forward, the study has recommended that State Government should set up a task force to monitor migration and also its prevention with 50% members of task force being women. Sustained availability of work at the grass root level through conservation of forest resources, revival of traditional water supply system should be taken up to increase the productivity, provision of irrigation facilities, support to SHGs and wage facilities should be ensured within the locality for 8 months etc.The study also suggests policy and administrative reforms to address the issues of tribal migrants in the State.